Fabrication and Application of the NaOH-activated Sorbent from Gayo Arabica Coffee Shells for Adsorption of Lead Metal (Pb) in Liquid Waste

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Mariana
Dinda Fathira
Risna Safitri
Syawaliah Muchtar

Abstract

Indonesia is a developing country with a high level of environmental
pollution, especially heavy metal pollution from industrial waste such as
Pb(II). One of several environmentally-friendly separation methods that can
be used to reduce levels of Pb(II) is adsorption by using waste-based
biosorbent. In this study, we report the fabrication of low-cost and green
adsorbent from Gayo Arabica coffee shell waste. The fabricated adsorbent is
activated by NaOH to further improve its performance and is applied for
the removal of Pb(II) in liquid waste. The resulting adsorbents are
characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine the
morphological structure, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrophotometer
(FTIR) to determine the functional groups, and X-Ray Diffraction, (XRD) to
determine the crystalline structure. The results show that the
characterization of the two types of adsorbents meet the quality
requirements according to SNI 06-3730-1995. The initial concentration of
Pb(II) solution used is 300 mg/L, contact time (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150
minutes) and type of activator (0.5 M NaOH and without activator). The
initial concentration of Pb(II) before and after adsorption is tested using
AAS. The analysis results obtained show that the maximum absorption
capacity that can be carried out by the adsorbent is 271,577 mg/g and an
efficiency of 90% at the equilibrium time of 120 minutes using an adsorbent
NaOH 0.5 M. It is also revealed that the adsorption process of Pb(II) by
coffee shell sorbent follows isotherm Langmuir model.

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