Analysis of Pb Levels in the Paint at Developing and Developed Countries (2010-2019): A Bibliometric Analysis

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Ahmed Ayathollah
R. Azizah
Novi Dian Arfiani
Fairuz Haniyah Ramadhani
Juliana Jalaludin


Lead exposure is estimated to account for 0.6% of the world's health problems, with the highest-burden on developing countries. The purpose of this study is to study the difference in lead levels in paint in developed and developing countries. This research is a literature review. This method collects research from scientific articles from around the world that describe lead levels in developing and developed countries. The articles selected after going through inclusion and exclusion criteria are 28 journals. The article comes from five developing countries (Brazil, India, China, Indonesia, and South Africa) and five developed countries (United States, United Kingdom, France, Canada, and Japan). The result of this study is that paints in developing and developed countries have high levels of lead. Lead levels in paint in developing countries, namely, Brazil 59,000 ppm; India 134,000 ppm; China 1,677 ppm; and Indonesia 2254 ppm. Lead levels in developed countries are 62,934 ppm; England 152,000 ppm; Canada 24,000 ppm; France 149 ppm; and Japan 1,800 ppm. The conclusion of this study is that lead levels in paint in developing and developed countries are different. Lead levels in developed countries are higher than in developing countries, but both exceed the established quality standard of 90 ppm.

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